K3s is small because a lot different not-mandatory components of Kubernetes are not included by default. As example K3s has only one available storageclass - local-path.
# kubectl get storageclass NAME PROVISIONER RECLAIMPOLICY VOLUMEBINDINGMODE ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION AGE local-path (default) rancher.io/local-path Delete WaitForFirstConsumer false 33d
Default local-path is more than enough to play around with storagesclass, persistent volumes and persistent volume claims.
When there is cluster of several nodes, volumes (which are used by pods) have to be external to nodes, otherwise each pod will have different data when it runs on different node (as it will use local volume). In home environment the most simple external storage can be NAS (network attached storage) accessible via NFS/CIFS/AFS protocols. So the same volume which is accessible via NFS can be mounted on all nodes and in that case local-path storageclass can be used still.
I started from there using NAS via NFS and it worked fine for most of the cases. However it means you need to make node configuration external to K3s - /etc/fstab has to be updated and managed, required mount modules have to be install on all nodes and the same volume has to be mounted on all nodes and if something goes wrong - you need to investigate the problem outside of K3s.
So next step was - discovery of nfs-client, it brings nfs-client as new storageclass into kubernetes cluster and allows to use it for persistent volume claims (pvc). nfs-client class can create (and manage afterwards) NFS volumes based on defined configuration and specified pvc-requests.
Before to install nfs-client into kubernetes cluster your NFS server has to be configured the following way:
- NFS should be accessible to all nodes via ip or hostname (192.168.8.20 on example below)
- each node has to have write permissions to nfs-path which will be used as base for all kubernetes nfs-volumes (/mnt/kubcluster on example below)
The easiest way to install nfs-client is to use helm and create storage namespace for it before:
helm repo add nfs-subdir-external-provisioner https://kubernetes-sigs.github.io/nfs-subdir-external-provisioner/ helm search repo | grep nfs-subdir nfs-subdir-external-provisioner/nfs-subdir-exte... 4.0.4 4.0.0 nfs-subdir-external-provisioner is an automatic... kubectl create namespace storage helm install -n storage --set nfs.server=192.168.8.20 --set nfs.path=/mnt/kubcluster storage nfs-subdir-external-provisioner/nfs-subdir-external-provisioner
As result you should see new storageclass available and pod running:
# kubectl get pod -n storage NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE storage-nfs-subdir-external-provisioner-dd4dbdf5-5rmrw 1/1 Running 0 9m57s # kubectl get storageclass NAME PROVISIONER RECLAIMPOLICY VOLUMEBINDINGMODE ALLOWVOLUMEEXPANSION AGE local-path (default) rancher.io/local-path Delete WaitForFirstConsumer false 6d17h nfs-client cluster.local/storage-nfs-subdir-external-provisioner Delete Immediate true 10m
Usage is very simple - just specify
volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-class: nfs-client as annotations in metadata for pvc you create.
As example the following yaml-file will create grafana-nfs-pvc which will automatically create pv with automatically generated name:
# cat monitoring/grafana-nfs-pvc.yaml apiVersion: v1 kind: PersistentVolumeClaim metadata: namespace: "monitoring" name: "grafana-nfs-pvc" annotations: volume.beta.kubernetes.io/storage-class: nfs-client spec: accessModes: - ReadWriteOnce resources: requests: storage: "50Mi" # kubectl get pvc grafana-nfs-pvc -n monitoring NAME STATUS VOLUME CAPACITY ACCESS MODES STORAGECLASS AGE grafana-nfs-pvc Bound pvc-1f903c25-823b-466d-b226-800c1e0a05d2 50Mi RWO nfs-client 27d # kubectl get pv pvc-1f903c25-823b-466d-b226-800c1e0a05d2 NAME CAPACITY ACCESS MODES RECLAIM POLICY STATUS CLAIM STORAGECLASS REASON AGE pvc-1f903c25-823b-466d-b226-800c1e0a05d2 50Mi RWO Delete Bound monitoring/grafana-nfs-pvc nfs-client 27d
This is what exists on NFS-server:
# ls -l /mnt/kubcluster | grep pvc-1f903c25-823b-466d-b226-800c1e0a05d2 drwxrwxrwx 4 root root 4096 Feb 20 12:38 monitoring-grafana-nfs-pvc-pvc-1f903c25-823b-466d-b226-800c1e0a05d
If pvc is deleted volume will be renamed into archived, but data will be left on NFS share. It is managed by Reclaim policy setting in storageclass (for more details).